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Codigo de etica de IFRAO

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    The IFRAO Code of Ethics (approved 14 July 2000) 1. Preamble 1(1). This Code of Ethics describes general guidelines which IFRAO recommends to its members.
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      The IFRAO Code of Ethics
      (approved 14 July 2000)

      1. Preamble
      1(1). This Code of Ethics describes general guidelines
      which IFRAO recommends to its members.
      1(2). Rock art provides a window to our collective
      past, helps us make sense of the present and
      contributes to our future. Some of it has been handed
      down to us by many generations preceding us, to
      safeguard it for many generations to follow us. Unless
      we can trace our lineage directly to those who created
      the rock art and have retained aspects of its original
      cultural context, it does not belong to us in any way.

      1(3). The cultural significance of a rock art site is
      embodied in the entire fabric of the site, in addition
      to the actual art present; in the traditional use of
      the place and the activities that occurred there; and
      in the meanings and intangible qualities of the place.

      1(4). Understanding the cultural significance of a
      place is fundamental to its care, and where such
      understanding is inadequate, any interference may be
      regarded as inappropriate.
      1(5). The ‘patina of history’ apparent in the fabric
      of a rock art site is important evidence and forms an
      integral part of that fabric. It includes natural or
      artificial changes or traces.

      2. Definitions
      Fabric all physical aspects of a rock art site,
      including accretionary deposits, the art itself,
      traces of later human responses, modifications, even
      traces of vandalism in cases, lichen, and so forth.
      Geomorphic exposure any rock surface.
      Graffiti collective term describing recent anthropic
      graphic markings or inscriptions that are incompatible
      with the known or presumed uses of the rock art on the
      same panels.
      IFRAO the International Federation of Rock Art
      Organisations.
      Indigenous cultural custodians descendants of people
      who created rock art, who are obligated by their
      cultural traditions or beliefs to act as the
      custodians or curators of rock art.
      Management administrative control over the management
      of rock art sites, including preservation, access
      control, public presentation.
      Massive intervention significant changes to the
      environmental conditions under which the rock art
      survives. This includes housing in a building, or
      removal of the supporting bedrock to another location.

      Members the members of IFRAO.
      Peer approval the approval of an action or proposed
      action by relevant specialists who have no pecuniary
      involvement in the project in question.
      Rock art the surviving graphic markings of cultural
      activities found on rock surfaces.
      Triumvirate of IFRAO the ruling council of IFRAO,
      consisting of the immediate past president, president
      and incoming president [assuming that my proposal to
      form such a council is approved in Portugal].
      Traditional owners see Indigenous cultural custodians.


      3. Issues of Ownership
      3(1). Traditional owners and indigenous cultural
      custodians: In areas where indigenous peoples live
      whose lifestyles and beliefs continue traditions
      associated with rock art, members recognise their
      ownership of the sites, and all research, conservation
      or management of such sites are subject to the full
      approval of the traditional owners. In areas where
      such indigenous peoples and traditions are no longer
      present, members shall endeavour to understand and
      promote management practices consistent with such
      beliefs in so far as they are known from ethnographic
      or archaeological evidence. In the absence of such
      evidence to the contrary, provisional concepts of such
      beliefs (e.g. non-human sources of authority, nature
      of the sacred, non-linear time/space) should be
      projected from similar societies and traditions
      elsewhere.
      3(2). Local antiquities and cultural heritage laws:
      Members shall abide by all local, state or national
      laws protecting archaeological sites and monuments,
      and comply with heritage protection laws generally.
      3(3). Non-traditional ownership of sites: Members
      shall respect the rules, laws or requests of any
      individuals or organisations possessing legal
      ownership of the land rock art sites are located on,
      or the land that must be traversed in order to reach
      the sites.
      3(4). Copyright and ownership of records: In regions
      where traditional indigenous owners exist, they
      possess copyright of the rock art designs. Members
      wishing to reproduce such designs shall make
      appropriate applications. Records made of rock art
      remain the cultural property of the rock artists, or
      collectively of the societies these lived amongst.

      4. Recording of Rock Art
      4(1). Methods of recording: Members shall not
      physically interfere with rock art except as provided
      in Clauses 5(2) and 6. No substances shall be applied
      to rock art for recording purposes, except substances
      that are regularly applied to individual panels by
      natural processes (e.g. water at open air sites).
      4(2). Coverage of recording: All recordings of rock
      art are incomplete. Therefore rock art recordings need
      to be as comprehensive as possible, and by
      multi-disciplinary means.
      4(3). Conduct at sites: New uses of sites, including
      for purposes of research, shall not change the fabric
      of a site, and shall respect associations and meanings
      of the site and its contents.
      4(4). Conduct in foreign countries: In addition to
      other requirements listed herein, researchers working
      in foreign countries shall do so in consultation with
      the region’s rock art organisation, and shall provide
      copies of reports and publications to that
      organisation.

      5. Removal of Samples
      5(1). Archaeological research: No excavation shall be
      undertaken at a rock art site unless it forms part of
      an appropriately authorised archaeological research
      project. This includes the removal of any sediment to
      uncover rock art images. Similarly, no archaeological
      surface remains shall be removed or relocated.
      5(2). Sampling of rock art and adjacent geomorphic
      exposures: No samples shall be removed of paint
      residue, accretionary deposits of any kind, or of the
      support rock, except after the following requirements
      have been satisfied:
      (a) The sample removal is to form part of a larger and
      specific research design that has peer approval;
      (b) The sample removal has been approved in writing by
      two peer researchers (i.e. scientists specialising in
      the analytical study of rock art);
      (c) The funds necessary for the best possible
      analytical laboratory support have been secured;
      (d) The analyst has extensive first-hand experience in
      sampling geomorphic surfaces;
      (e) Traditional indigenous custodians, where they have
      jurisdiction, have approved the sample removal;
      (f) The relevant local or national authorities have
      approved the sample removal;
      5(3). Excavation: No excavations shall be undertaken
      at a rock art site unless the expertise of identifying
      rock art-making tools is available to the researchers
      proposing such excavation.

      6. Conservation
      6(1). Setting: The area around a rock art site, its
      setting, may contain features associated with the rock
      art and other evidence of its history. The visual,
      historical and other relationships between a site and
      its setting which contribute to its significance shall
      be retained in all conservation or preservation work.
      6(2). Site fabric: In all conservation, preservation
      or management work at and near rock art sites, the
      visual, historical and scientific significance of the
      site fabric shall be retained. The removal or
      palliation of ‘graffiti’ shall be undertaken only
      after approval of the relevant authorities, and be
      effected only under the guidance of qualified rock art
      conservators. Massive intervention is to be reserved
      for situations of extreme threats to rock art, and
      shall be undertaken only after extensive peer review
      and approval.
      6(3). Protection: Members will not disclose the
      locations of non-public and unprotected rock art sites
      to the general public. Ultimately, the best protection
      will depend on the awareness of the general public of
      the value of rock art. Part of any conservation effort
      should include the education of the public towards
      respect for rock art wherever it occurs.

      7. Disputes
      7(1). Conduct: Members shall endeavour to treat other
      members in a courteous manner. In regions where
      traditional indigenous owners exist, members shall
      ensure that they are kept informed about all aspects
      of research work, and that copies of completed reports
      are made available to them. Where such reports appear
      in technical jargon, ordinary-language versions are to
      be made available.
      7(2). Plagiarism: Members shall acknowledge the use of
      other researcher’s recordings, published comments and
      ideas.
      7(3). Dispute settlement: Members shall make every
      endeavour to settle disputes among themselves, as
      IFRAO is reluctant to settle disputes among its
      members. Where a dispute cannot be settled and
      threatens the integrity of IFRAO, application for
      arbitration shall be made to the President of IFRAO,
      providing the relevant documentation. The dispute will
      then be arbitrated by the Triumvirate of IFRAO if its
      resolution is urgent, but preferably at the subsequent
      General Meeting of IFRAO.

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